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Reproduction of the bison research on this site is for nonprofit educational purposes only, is posted only for the purposes of scholarly research and investigation of the status of Bison bison, and should not be used for further distribution.

"Today, the plains bison is for all practical purposes ecologically extinct within its original range." ~ C.H. Freese, Second chance for the plains bison

"Current management of private, state, and Federal bison herds is leading towards domestication of bison that threatens their wild character and limits important natural selection processes." ~ Position Statement of the Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society on Wild Bison in Montana

"Yellowstone National Park is the only place in the lower 48 States where bison have existed in a wild state since prehistoric times. Bison occupied the region encompassing the park from shortly after recession of the last glaciers 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, until the 19th century when they came close to extirpation." ~ C. Cormack Gates, The Ecology of Bison Movements and Distribution in and beyond Yellowstone National Park

"The Bison of Yellowstone National Park are unique among bison herds in the United States, being descendants, in part, of the only continuously wild herd in this country." ~ Margaret Mary Meagher, The Bison of Yellowstone National Park

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Arthur, George W. (--). The Emigrant Bison Drives of Paradise Valley, Montana. Montana State University, Dept. of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Welfare; Missoula, MT.

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Barrett, Gabriela (1994). "Being As It Used To Be Long Ago, May I Walk": Stories on Relationship to Animals, to Self. Professional Paper, Master of Science. University of Montana.

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Berger, Joel and Steven L. Cain (1999). Reproductive Synchrony in Brucellosis-Exposed Bison in the Southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and in Nininfected Populations. Conservation Biology 13(2): 357-366 (April 1999).

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Berger, Joel and Carol Cunningham (1994). Multiple Bottlenecks, Allopatric Lineages and Badlands Bison (Bos bison) Consequences of Lineage Mixing. Biological Conservation 71(1995): 13-23.

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Cannon, Kenneth P. (1997b). A Review of Prehistoric Faunal Remains from Various Contexts in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Cannon, Kenneth P. (1999a). The Application of Archeology to Bison Management in the Greater Yellowstone Area (23 pp., biblio. included). National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center and University of Nebraska, Dept. of Geography; Lincoln, Nebraska (April 1999). HISTORIC - GENETIC - ARCHEOLOGY

Cannon, Kenneth P. (1999b). Prehistoric Bison Ecology and Its Application to Modern Bison Management in the Greater Yellowstone Area. National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, Lincoln, Nebraska (Oct. 1999).

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Eberhardt, L.L. (1987). Population Projections From Simple Models. Journal of Applied Ecology, 24:103-118.

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Ferrari, M.J. (1999). "An Assessment of the Risk of Inter-Specific Transmission of Brucella abortus from Bison to Elk on the Madison-Firehole Winter Range." M.S. Thesis, Montana State University, Bozeman.

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GAO (1999). Wildife Management: Negotiations on a Long-Term Plan for Managing Yellowstone Bison Still Ongoing. Report to Congressional Requesters; GAO/RCED-00-7. United States General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

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